R & D Solutions

Plastic

Date: 2014-07-01
Views: 119

The definition of plastic

 Plastic is a kind of macromolecule organic material, making resin as the main component and shaping into a certain shape under certain temperature and pressure and could relain the shape under room temperature.

 Resin refers to a organic polymer that usually has a range of converting or melting when heated, and with mobility by external force when transforming, it is solid or semi-solid or liquid under room temperature, it is the most basic and most important component of plastic. Broadly speaking, any polymer in the plastic industry as a plastic base material can be called a resin.

 The basic performance of plastic

1. Light weight, high strength. light plastic weight, the general density of plastic is between 0.9 and 2.3 g / cm , only 1/8 to 1/4 of the steel, 1/2 of the aluminum, and the density of various foamed plastic is lower, about 0.01 to O.5 g / cm. The strength per unit mass is called the specific strength, and the strength of some reinforced plastics is close to or even higher than that of steel. For example, alloy steel, the unit mass tensile strength is 160 MPa, and glass fiber reinforced plastic can reach 170 ~ 400 MPa.

2. Excellent electrical insulation performance. Almost all plastics have excellent electrical insulation properties, such as minimal dielectric loss and excellent arc resistance, which are comparable to ceramic.

3. Excellent chemical stability. General plastic have good corrosion resistance on the acid and other chemicals, especially Teflon chemical resistance, which is better than gold, and even bear the corrosion of strong corrosive electrolytes like "Wang Shui", known as the " Plastic king ".

4. Anti-friction, good wear resistance. Most plastics have excellent anti-friction, wear and self-lubricating properties. Many of the engineering plastics made of friction parts make use of these characteristics of plastic, adding certain solid lubricants and fillers in wear-resistant plastics, which can reduce the friction coefficient or to further improve its wear resistance.

5. Light transmission and protective performance. Most plastics can be used as transparent or semitransparent products, in which polystyrene and acrylic plastic are transparent as glass. The chemical name of Plexiglass is polymethyl methacrylate, can be used as aerospace glass materials. Polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene and other plastic film have a good light transmission and thermal performance, a large number of them used as agricultural films. Plastic has a variety of protective properties, it is often used as protective equipment, such as plastic film, boxes, barrels, bottles and so on.

 6. Excellent shock absorption, noise reduction performance. Some plastic is flexible, when it is subject to frequent external mechanical shock and vibration, the internal produces viscous internal friction, transforming the mechanical energy into heat, therefore, used as shock absorption and noise reduction material. For example, bearings and teeth made of engineering plastics can reduce noise, a variety of foam is widely used in excellent silencers and damping materials.

     The excellent properties of the plastics above make it widely used in industrial and agricultural production and people's daily lives; it has been used as a substitute for materials such as metal, glass, ceramics, wood and fiber, and has become indispensable materials in modern life and sophisticated Industry.

However, plastic also has shortcomings. For example, the heat resistance is worse than metal and other materials, the general plastic can only be used in the temperature below 100 ℃, a few used below 200 ℃ or so; plastic thermal expansion coefficient is 3 to 10 times higher than the metal, and the size of the stability is easily affected by temperature changes. Under the action of the load, the plastic will slowly produce viscous flow or deformation, that is creep phenomenon; In addition, some of the role of aging will occur under the pressure of long-term atmosphere and sunlight. These shortcomings of plastics affect or limit its application more or less. However, with the development of the plastics industry and the deepening of research on plastic materials, these shortcomings are being overcome, the new plastic and a variety of plastic composite materials are emerging.

  The use of plastic

       Plastic has been widely used in many fields like agriculture, industry, construction, packaging, national defense sophisticated industries and people's daily life.

       Agriculture: A large number of plastic used in the manufacture of plastic film, seedling film, greenhouse film and irrigation and drainage pipes, fish nets, floats and so on.

       Industrial: Electric and electronic industry widely make plastic as insulation materials and packaging materials; in the machinery industry, instead of metal products, plastic is made into transmission gears, bearings and many parts; in the chemical industry, used for pipeline, containers and other anti-corrosion materials; in the construction industry, used for doors and windows, staircase handrails, floor tiles, ceilings, thermal insulation panels, wallpaper, water pipe fittings and pit, decorative panels and sanitary ware.

       In the defense industry and sophisticated technology, whether it is conventional weapons, aircraft, ships, or rockets, missiles, satellites, spacecraft and atomic energy industry, plastic is an indispensable material. In the daily life of people, the application of plastic is more widely, such as plastic sandals, slippers, raincoats, handbags, children's toys, toothbrushes, soap boxes, hot water bottles and so on in the marketing and sales. At present, it also receives a wide range of applications in a variety of household appliances, such as televisions, radio cassette recorder, electric fans, washing machines, refrigerators, etc..

       As a new type of packaging material, plastic has been widely used in the field of packaging, such as various hollow containers, injection containers (turnover boxes, containers, barrels, etc.), packaging films, woven bags, corrugated boxes, foam, Packing belt and so on.

     The development history and status quo of plastic industry

      As early as the 19th century, people had been using asphalt, rosin, amber, shellac and other natural resin. In 1868, nitrified the natural cellulose and used camphor as plasticizer to make the world's first plastic varieties, known as celluloid, since then the use of plastic in the history of human began. in 1909, the first synthetic plastic - phenolic plastic appeared. In 1920, another synthetic plastic - aminoplast (aniline formaldehyde plastic) was born. These two kinds of plastic played a positive role in the development to promote the electrical industry and instrument manufacturing industry.

       By the1920s and 1930s, alkyd resin, polyvinyl chloride, acrylic, polystyrene and polyamide and other plastics emerged in succession. From the 1940s to the present, with the development of science, technology and industry and the extensive exploitation and utilization of petroleum resources, the plastics industry gained rapid development. Varieties of polyethylene, polypropylene, unsaturated polyester, fluorine plastic, epoxy resin, POM, polycarbonate, polyimide and so on appeared.

 

 

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The definition of plastic Plastic is a kind of macromolecule organic material, making resin as the main component and shaping into a certain shape under certain temperature and pressure and could relain the shape under room temperature. Resin refers to a organic polymer that usually has a range of converting or melting when heated, and with mobility by external force when transforming, it is solid or semi-solid or liquid under room temperature, it is the most basic and most important component of plastic. Broadly speaki...

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